Galactose - A type of sugar found in milk products and sugar beets. It is also made by the body. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it contains calories.
Gastroparesis - A complication of diabetes that causes delayed digestion resulting in unpredictable swings in blood glucose levels.
Gestational diabetes - A form of diabetes that may develop during pregnancy. In some women, certain hormones normally produced by the body during pregnancy can result in unusually high blood glucose levels. If the body cannot produce enough insulin, this can lead to hyperglycaemia and may require treatment with insulin. Gestational diabetes usually ends when the baby is born, but many mothers who experience gestational diabetes can later develop Type 2 diabetes.
Glucagon - A hormone produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas. It causes blood glucose levels to rise.
Glucose - A carbohydrate and is the body's most important source of energy. It is produced from digested food, by the normal action of the liver, and is carried by the blood throughout the body.
Glycemic response - The effect of different foods on blood glucose (sugar) levels over a period of time. Researchers have discovered that some kinds of foods may raise blood glucose levels more quickly than other foods containing the same amount of carbohydrates.
Glycogen - A substance made up of sugars. It is stored in the liver and muscles and releases glucose (sugar) into the blood when needed by cells. Glycogen is the chief source of stored fuel in the body.
Glycogenesis - Glycogenesis (or glucogenesis) - The process by which glycogen is formed from glucose. See also: Glycogen.
Glycosuria - Having glucose (sugar) in the urine.
Glycosylated Haemoglobin Test - A blood test that measures a person's average blood glucose (sugar) level for the 2- to 3-month period before the test. See: haemoglobin A1C.
Gram - A unit of weight in the metric system. There are 28 grams in 1 ounce. In some diet plans for people with diabetes, the suggested amounts of food are given in grams.