This quick reference is your comprehensive lookup of diabetes terms and their meanings.
Advanced set-up menu - The advanced set-up menu allows you to program additional functions on your pump. These functions include activating the extended bolus or the audio bolus feature; setting insulin limits for maximum basal rate, maximum bolus delivery, and maximum daily delivery; selecting display language; choosing an extended display viewing time; programming an audio bolus step size; programming the length of the auto off feature; selecting a lower or higher level of insulin for the pump's cartridge warning; choosing between a standard 12 hour clock and an international 24 hour clock; and selecting a lower or higher level of sensitivity to occlusion detection.
Alarm - An alarm is a condition that warrants the user's attention and is critical enough that it requires that the pump be shut down or reset. These conditions include dead battery, pump malfunction, empty cartridge, under-infusion, over-infusion, and occlusion. When an alarm occurs, an alarm beep is sounded, and a descriptive message appears on the display screen.
Alarm screen - The alarm screen on a pump is automatically displayed whenever an alarm condition occurs. A message describing the alarm appears on the screen.
Alpha cells - Alpha cells are found in the pancreas. They produce a hormone called glucagon, which raises blood glucose levels.
Amino acid - The building blocks of proteins; the main material of the body's cells. Insulin is made of 51 amino acids joined together.
Antibodies - Proteins that the body makes to protect itself from foreign substances. In diabetes, the body sometimes makes antibodies to work against pork or beef insulin because they are not exactly the same as human insulin or because they have impurities. The antibodies can keep the insulin from working well and may even cause the person with diabetes to have an allergic or bad reaction to the beef or pork insulin.
Audio bolus - The audio bolus is a feature of some pumps that allows you to program a bolus delivery by pressing a button without looking at the pump display screen.
Backlight button - The backlight button is a feature of some pumps that is used to turn on a light behind the display screen.
Basal - The amount of insulin needed to meet metabolic insulin requirements when an individual is not eating. The amount needed is usually 40 to 50 % of total daily insulin needs.
Basal rate - The basal rate is the amount of insulin that is continuously delivered by an insulin pump. It is measured in units per hour (U/hr). The basal rate usually provides about 40% to 60% of the daily total delivery of insulin.
Beta cells - Beta cells are found in the pancreas. They produce insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels. In Type 1 insulin dependent diabetes the beta cells are destroyed, so the body can no longer produce insulin.
Blood glucose - The main sugar that the body makes from the three elements of food-proteins, fats, and carbohydrates-but mostly from carbohydrates. Glucose is the major source of energy for living cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. However, the cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin.
Blood glucose levels - The measure of how much glucose (blood sugar) is in the blood. The normal level (euglycemia) is about 4 - 7 mmol/l before meals and less than 8 mmol/l after meals.
Bolus - The amount of insulin delivered at one time, usually before a meal or when blood glucose is high.
C-peptide - A substance that the pancreas releases into the bloodstream in equal amounts to insulin. A test of C-peptide levels will show how much insulin the body is making.
C.D.E. (credentialled diabetes educator) - A health care professional who is qualified by the Australian Diabetes Education Association to teach people with diabetes how to manage their condition. The health care team for diabetes should include a diabetes educator, preferably a C.D.E.
Cannula - A small tube that is inserted into the body. Some infusion sets are designed so that only the cannula remains in the body and the needle used for insertion is removed.
Carbohydrate - One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells). The body also uses carbohydrates to make a substance called glycogen that is stored in the liver and muscles for future use. If the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it has, then the body will not be able to use carbohydrates for energy the way it should. This condition is called diabetes. See also: fats; protein.
Carbohydrate counting - Counting the amount of grams of carbohydrate in food to estimate the amount of insulin needed as a meal bolus to maintain a normal blood glucose level.
Cartridge - The container that holds insulin in the pump. May also be called a reservoir.
Conventional therapy - A system of diabetes management practiced by most people with diabetes; the system consists of one or two insulin injections each day, daily self-monitoring of blood glucose, and a standard program of nutrition and exercise. The main objective in this form of treatment is to avoid very high and very low blood glucose (sugar). Also called: "Standard Therapy."
CSII - Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion - See: Insulin pump.
Dawn phenomenon - More insulin may be required in the early morning hours of normal sleep to counteract the release of the hormones, cortisol, and adrenaline. This increased need for insulin is known as dawn phenomenon and may cause a person with diabetes to have a high blood glucose level in the morning upon waking. Basal rate delivery can be programmed to compensate for dawn phenomenon.
Delta cell - A type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. Delta cells make somatostatin, a hormone that is believed to control how the beta cells make and release insulin and how the alpha cells make and release glucagon.
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) - A 10-year study (1983-1993) funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to assess the effects of intensive therapy on the long-term complications of diabetes. The study proved that intensive management of insulin-dependent diabetes prevents or slows the development of eye, kidney, and nerve damage caused by diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus - A disease that occurs when the body is not able to use sugar as it should. The body needs sugar for growth and energy for daily activities. It gets sugar when it changes food into glucose (a form of sugar). A hormone called insulin is needed for the glucose to be taken up and used by the body. Diabetes occurs when the body cannot make use of the glucose in the blood for energy because either the pancreas is not able to make enough insulin or the insulin that is available is not effective. The beta cells in areas of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans usually make insulin. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: type I and type 2. In type 1 diabetes the pancreas makes little or no insulin because the insulin-producing beta cells have been destroyed. This type usually appears suddenly and most commonly in younger people under age 30. The level of insulin is too low for a long period of time the body begins to break down its stores of fat for energy. This causes the body to release acids (ketones) into the blood. The result is called ketoacidosis, a severe condition that may put a person into a coma if not treated right away. Treatment consists of daily insulin injections or use of an insulin pump, a planned diet accompanied by regular exercise, and daily self-monitoring of blood glucose. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas makes some insulin, sometimes too much. The insulin, however, is not effective (see Insulin Resistance). Type 2 is controlled by diet, exercise, and daily monitoring of glucose levels. This is a progressive condition where oral drugs that lower blood glucose levels or insulin injections will be needed over time. This type of diabetes usually develops gradually, most often in people over 40 years of age and accounts for 90 to 95 percent of diabetes. The signs of diabetes include having to urinate often, losing weight, getting very thirsty, and being hungry all the time. Other signs are blurred vision, itching, and slow healing of sores. People with untreated or undiagnosed diabetes are thirsty and have to urinate often because glucose builds to a high level in the bloodstream and the kidneys are working hard to flush out the extra amount. People with untreated diabetes often get hungry and tired because the body is not able to use food the way it should.
Diabetic coma - A severe emergency in which a person is not conscious because the blood glucose (sugar) is too low or too high. If the glucose level is too low, the person has hypoglycaemia; if the level is too high, the person has hyperglycaemia and may develop ketoacidosis. See also: hyperglycaemia; hypoglycaemia; diabetic ketoacidosis.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - Condition resulting when there is not enough insulin available to help glucose enter the cells where it is used for energy. The body, in turn, burns muscle and fat for energy. A waste product of fat burning is Ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood and then pass through the urine and lungs. This condition can be identified by urine and/or blood tests. DKA usually requires hospitalization and can be fatal if not promptly treated.
Dietitian - An expert in nutrition who helps people with special health needs plan the kinds and amounts of foods to eat. The health care team for diabetes should include a dietitian.
Display screen - The pump's liquid crystal display (LCD) screen is located on the front panel of the pump. Programming menus and other information appear on the display screen and are selected by pressing the up, down, or enter buttons next to the screen.
Endocrine glands - Glands that release hormones into the bloodstream. They affect how the body uses food (metabolism). They also influence other body functions. One endocrine gland is the pancreas. It releases insulin so the body can use sugar for energy. See also: gland.
Endocrinologist - A doctor who treats people who have problems with their endocrine glands. Diabetes is an endocrine disorder. See also: endocrine glands.
Endogenous - Grown or made inside the body. Insulin made by a person's own pancreas is endogenous insulin. Insulin that is made from beef or pork pancreas or derived from bacteria is exogenous because it comes from outside the body and must be injected.
Enzymes - A special type of protein. Enzymes help the body's chemistry work better and more quickly. Each enzyme usually has its own chemical job to do such as helping to change starch into glucose (sugar).
Epinephrine - One of the secretions of the adrenal glands. It helps the liver release glucose (sugar) and limits the release of insulin. It also makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure; also called adrenalin.
Euglycemia - It is a condition in which the concentration of glucose in the blood is at normal levels (under 7 – 8mmol/l).
Extended bolus - An extended bolus is a programmable option with some insulin pumps. It permits delivery of insulin throughout a long meal, rather than a single fast-dose bolus.
Fasting blood glucose test - A method for finding out how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. The test can show if a person has diabetes. A blood sample is taken in a lab or doctor's office. The test is usually done in the morning before the person has eaten. The normal, nondiabetic range for blood glucose is from 4 to 6 mmol/l before meals and less than 8 mmol/l after meals, depending on the type of blood being tested.
Fats - One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and come chiefly from animal food products. Some examples are butter, lard, meat fat, solid shortening, palm oil, and coconut oil. These fats tend to raise the level of cholesterol, a fat-like substance in the blood.
Fatty acids - A basic unit of fats. When insulin levels are too low or there is not enough glucose (sugar) to use for energy, the body burns fatty acids for energy. The body then makes ketone bodies, waste products that cause the acid level in the blood to become too high. This in turn may lead to ketoacidosis, a serious problem. See also: diabetic ketoacidosis.
Fibre - A substance found in foods that come from plants. Fibre helps in the digestive process and is thought to lower cholesterol and help control blood glucose (sugar). The two types of fibre in food are soluble and insoluble. Soluble fibre, found in beans, fruits, and oat products, dissolves in water and is thought to help lower blood fats and blood glucose (sugar). Insoluble fibre, found in whole-grain products and vegetables, passes directly through the digestive system, helping to rid the body of waste products.
Fructose - A type of sugar found in many fruits, vegetables, and honey. Fructose is used to sweeten some diet foods. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it contains calories.
Galactose - A type of sugar found in milk products and sugar beets. It is also made by the body. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it contains calories.
Gastroparesis - A complication of diabetes that causes delayed digestion resulting in unpredictable swings in blood glucose levels.
Gestational diabetes - A form of diabetes that may develop during pregnancy. In some women, certain hormones normally produced by the body during pregnancy can result in unusually high blood glucose levels. If the body cannot produce enough insulin, this can lead to hyperglycaemia and may require treatment with insulin. Gestational diabetes usually ends when the baby is born, but many mothers who experience gestational diabetes can later develop Type 2 diabetes.
Glucagon - A hormone produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas. It causes blood glucose levels to rise.
Glucose - A carbohydrate and is the body's most important source of energy. It is produced from digested food, by the normal action of the liver, and is carried by the blood throughout the body.
Glycemic response - The effect of different foods on blood glucose (sugar) levels over a period of time. Researchers have discovered that some kinds of foods may raise blood glucose levels more quickly than other foods containing the same amount of carbohydrates.
Glycogen - A substance made up of sugars. It is stored in the liver and muscles and releases glucose (sugar) into the blood when needed by cells. Glycogen is the chief source of stored fuel in the body.
Glycogenesis - Glycogenesis (or glucogenesis) - The process by which glycogen is formed from glucose. See also: Glycogen.
Glycosuria - Having glucose (sugar) in the urine.
Glycosylated Haemoglobin Test - A blood test that measures a person's average blood glucose (sugar) level for the 2- to 3-month period before the test. See: haemoglobin A1C.
Gram - A unit of weight in the metric system. There are 28 grams in 1 ounce. In some diet plans for people with diabetes, the suggested amounts of food are given in grams.
Haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) - The substance of red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells and sometimes joins with glucose (sugar). Because the glucose stays attached for the life of the cell (about 4 months), a test to measure haemoglobin A1C shows what the person's average blood glucose level was for that period of time.
Homeostasis - When the body is working as it should because all of its systems are in balance.
Hormone - Released by special cells, hormones are chemicals that tell other cells what to do. For instance, insulin is a hormone made by the beta cells in the pancreas. When released, insulin tells other cells to use glucose (sugar) for energy.
Human insulin - Man-made insulins that are similar to insulin produced by your own body. Human insulin has been available since October 1982.
Hyperglycaemia - Also known as high blood sugar. It occurs when blood glucose levels rise above 10 mmol/l, and the body does not have enough or cannot use insulin to process food. Symptoms of hyperglycaemia include nausea, vomiting, muscle and joint aches, blurred vision, excessive thirst, and frequent urination. Over time, weight loss can result. Hyperglycaemia can occur even while using an insulin pump, and can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) if untreated.
Hyperinsulinism - Too high a level of insulin in the blood. This term most often refers to a condition in which the body produces too much insulin. Researchers believe that this condition may play a role in the development of noninsulin-dependent diabetes and in hypertension. See also: syndrome X.
Hyperlipidemia - Too high a level of fats (lipids) in the blood. See also: Syndrome X.
Hyperosmolar coma - A coma (loss of consciousness) related to high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood and requiring emergency treatment. A person with this condition is usually older and weak from loss of body fluids and weight. The person may or may not have a previous history of diabetes. Ketones (acids) are not present in the urine.
Hypoglycaemia - Also known as low blood sugar. It occurs when blood glucose levels drop to below 4 mmol/l. This can happen if a person with diabetes has taken too much insulin or has exercised more than usual. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia include dizziness, shakiness, rapid heartbeat, sudden hunger, cold or clammy skin, fuzzy vision, confusion, mood changes, and tingling or numbness in the hands, arms, tongue, or lips. Hypoglycaemia can occur even while using an insulin pump and, if left untreated, can lead to unconsciousness and diabetic coma. Pre-Diabetes – blood glucose (sugar) levels higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. People with pre-diabetes may or may not develop diabetes. Other names for pre-diabetes are impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, borderline, subclinical, chemical, or latent diabetes.
Implantable insulin pump - A small pump placed inside of the body that delivers insulin in response to commands from a hand-held device called a programmer.
Impotence - The loss of a man's ability to have an erect penis and to emit semen. Some men may become impotent after having diabetes for a long time because the nerves or blood vessels have become damaged. Sometimes the problem has nothing to do with diabetes and may be treated with counselling.
Infusion set - Consists of a length of thin plastic tubing (24" or 43" long) with a Luer™-lock connector at one end, and at the other end, a very small cannula that is placed under the skin. It is connected to the insulin pump and used to deliver insulin to the body.
Infusion site - The place on the body where the infusion set needle is inserted under the skin.
Injection - Putting liquid into the body with a needle and syringe. A person with diabetes injects insulin by putting the needle into the tissue under the skin (called subcutaneous). Other ways of giving medicine or nourishment by injection are putting the needle into a vein (intravenous/IV) or putting the needle into a muscle (intramuscular/IM).
Injection site rotation - Changing the places on the body where a person injects insulin. Changing the injection site keeps lumps or small dents (called lipodystrephies) from forming in the skin. People should, however, try to use the same body area for injections that are given at the same time each day; for example, always using the stomach for the morning injection or an arm for the evening injection. Using the same body area for these routine injections lessens the possibility of changes in the timing and action of insulin.
Injection sites - Places on the body where people can inject insulin most easily. These are just above and below the waist, except the area right around the navel (a 2-inch circle) and the upper area of the buttock, just behind the hip bone. The front of the thigh, midway to the outer side, 4 inches below the top of the thigh to 4 inches above the knee can be used for night-time injection. These areas can vary with the size of the person.
Insulin - A hormone produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin is needed by the body to regulate the production and use of glucose.
Insulin antagonist - Insulin antagonist – is something that opposes or fights the action of insulin. Insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas glucagon raises it; therefore, glucagon is an antagonist of insulin.
Insulin binding - When insulin attaches itself to something else. This can occur in two ways. First, when a cell needs energy, insulin can bind with the outer part of the cell. The cell then can bring glucose (sugar) inside and use it for energy. With the help of insulin, the cell can do its work very well and very quickly. But sometimes the body acts against itself. In this second case, the insulin binds with the proteins that are supposed to protect the body from outside substances (antibodies). If the insulin is an injected form of insulin and not made by the body (exogenous), the body sees the insulin as an outside or "foreign" substance. When the injected insulin binds with the antibodies, it does not work as well as when it binds directly to the cell.
Insulin pen - An insulin injection device the size of a pen that includes a needle and holds a vial of insulin. It can be used instead of syringes for giving insulin injections.
Insulin pump - An insulin pump is a small, battery-powered device that mechanically pumps measured amounts of insulin through an infusion set into the body. THE PUMP IS NOT AUTOMATIC. You program and control it, and you must perform four to six blood glucose tests daily to ensure delivery of appropriate amounts of insulin by the pump.
Insulin reaction - The level of glucose (sugar) in the blood is too low; also called hypoglycaemia. This occurs when a person with diabetes has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or exercised without extra food. The person may feel hungry, nauseated, weak, nervous, shaky, confused, and sweaty. Taking small amounts of sugar, sweet juice, or food with sugar will usually help the person feel better within 10-15 minutes. See also: hypoglycaemia; insulin shock.
Insulin receptors - Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow the cell to join or bind with insulin that is in the blood. When the cell and insulin bind together, the cell can take glucose (sugar) from the blood and use it for energy.
Insulin resistance - Many people with noninsulin-dependent diabetes produce enough insulin, but their bodies do not respond to the action of insulin. This may happen because the person is overweight and has too many fat cells, which do not respond well to insulin. Also, as people age, their body cells lose some of the ability to respond to insulin. Insulin resistance is also linked to high blood pressure and high levels of fat in the blood. Another kind of insulin resistance may happen in some people who take insulin injections. They may have to take very high doses of insulin every day (200 units or more) to bring their blood glucose (sugar) down to the normal range. This is also called "insulin insensitivity."
Insulin shock - A severe condition that occurs when the level of blood glucose (sugar) drops quickly. The signs are shaking, sweating, dizziness, double vision, convulsions, and collapse. Insulin shock may occur when an insulin reaction is not treated quickly enough. See also: Hypoglycaemia; insulin reaction.
Insulin-induced atrophy - Small dents that form on the skin when a person keeps injecting a needle in the same spot. They are harmless. See also: lipoatrophy; injection site rotation.
Insulin-induced hypertrophy - Small lumps that form under the skin when a person keeps injecting a needle in the same spot. See also: lipodystrophy; injection site rotation.
Insulinoma - A tumour of the beta cells in areas of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Although not usually cancerous, such tumours may cause the body to make extra insulin and may lead to a blood glucose (sugar) level that is too low.
Intensive management - A form of treatment for insulin-dependent diabetes in which the main objective is to keep blood glucose (sugar) levels as close to the normal range as possible. The treatment consists of three or more insulin injections a day or use of an insulin pump; four or more blood glucose tests a day; adjustment of insulin, food intake, and activity levels based on blood glucose test results; dietary counselling; and management by a diabetes team. See also: Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; team management.
Intramuscular injection - Putting a fluid into a muscle with a needle and syringe.
Intravenous injection - Putting a fluid into a vein with a needle and syringe.
Islet cell transplantation - Moving the beta (islet) cells from a donor pancreas and putting them into a person whose pancreas has stopped producing insulin. The beta cells make the insulin that the body needs to use glucose (sugar) for energy. Although transplanting islet cells may one-day help people with diabetes, the procedure is still in the research stage.
Islets of Langerhans - Special groups of cells in the pancreas. They make and secrete hormones that help the body break down and use food. Named after Paul Langerhans, the German scientist who discovered them in 1869, these cells sit in clusters in the pancreas. There are five types of cells in an islet: beta cells, which make insulin; alpha cells, which make glucagon; delta cells, which make somatostaton; and PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known.
Ketones - Ketones, or ketone bodies, are substances produced by normal liver activity, and used by muscle tissue. In uncontrolled diabetes, the process becomes unbalanced and ketones can accumulate in the blood, pass through the urine, and ultimately result in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
Ketonuria - Having ketone bodies in the urine; a warning sign of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
Ketosis - A condition of having ketone bodies build up in body tissues and fluids. The signs of ketosis are nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Ketosis can lead to ketoacidosis.
Lactose - A type of sugar found in milk and milk products (cheese, butter, etc.). It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it contains calories.
Lancet - A fine, sharp-pointed blade or needle for pricking the skin.
LCD - Liquid crystal display. This is the kind of display screen used on the ANIMAS pump. What makes the ANIMAS LCD display screen different from others is its graphic display. Graphic displays make it easier to change languages and are more efficient in using space.
Lipodystrophy - Lumps or small dents in the skin that form when a person keeps injecting the needle in the same spot. Lipodystrophies are harmless. People who want to avoid them can do so by changing (rotating) the places where they inject their insulin. Using purified insulin may also help. See also: injection site rotation.
Lispro insulin or Humalog - Rapid acting human insulin analog. Onset of action is faster than Regular insulin (15 to 30 min), peak action is sooner than Regular (30 to 90 min), and duration is less (< 5 hrs).
Luer™-lock - A Luer™-lock, or Luer™ connection, is a special threaded fitting used to connect the infusion set to the pump's insulin cartridge.
Meal plan - A guide for controlling the amount of calories, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats a person eats. People with diabetes can use such plans as the Exchange Lists or the Point System to help them plan their meals so that they can keep their diabetes under control. See also: Exchange lists; point system.
Menu - The menu is a list of options shown on the pump display screen. Most pumps are "menu-driven."
Metabolism - The term for the way cells chemically change food so that it can be used to keep the body alive. It is a two-part process. One part is called catabolism-when the body uses food for energy. The other is called anabolism-when the body uses food to build or mend cells. Insulin is necessary for the metabolism of food.
MMOL/L - is the unit used to measure blood glucose levels. It is the abbreviation for millimoles of glucose per litre of blood.
Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring - A way to measure blood glucose without having to prick the finger to obtain a blood sample. Several non-invasive devices are currently being developed.
Non-ketotic coma - A type of coma caused by a lack of insulin. A non-ketotic crisis means: (1) very high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood; (2) absence of ketoacidosis; (3) great loss of body fluid; and (4) a sleepy, confused, or comatose state. Non-ketotic coma often results from some other problem such as a severe infection or kidney failure.
Nutrition - The process by which the body draws nutrients from food and uses them to make or mend its cells.
Occlusion - Occlusion means "blockage." Pumps are designed to be able to sense when delivery of the insulin is being blocked for some reason. The pump will automatically stop delivering insulin and give an alarm to alert you to clear the occlusion and restart the pump.
Pancreas - The pancreas is a glandular organ that lies just behind the stomach, next to the liver. It produces digestive enzymes used to break down proteins in food. It contains alpha cells, which produce glucagon, and beta cells, which produce insulin.
Peak action - The time period when the effect of something is as strong as it can be such as when insulin in having the most effect on lowering the glucose (sugar) in the blood.
Polydipsia - - A great thirst that lasts for long periods of time; a sign of diabetes.
Polyphagia - Great hunger; a sign of diabetes. People with this great hunger often lose weight.
Polyuria - Having to urinate often; a common sign of diabetes.
Post prandial blood glucose - Blood taken 1-2 hours after eating to see the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
Prime - The prime allows you to purge air from the newly connected infusion set tubing by pumping insulin through the tubing until it comes out the other end. If wearing a non-disconnectable set you should never prime after the needle is inserted under the skin. If wearing a dis-connectable set, you must always disconnect before priming the pump.
Protein - One of the three main classes of food. Proteins are made of amino acids, which are called the building blocks of the cells. The cells need proteins to grow and to mend themselves. Protein is found in many foods such as meat, fish, poultry, and eggs. See also: carbohydrate; fats.
Rebound - A swing to a high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood after having a low level. See also: somogyi effect.
Receptors - Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow the cell to join or bind with insulin that is in the blood. See also: insulin receptors.
Set-up menu - The set-up menu of a pump allows you to program the pump's display for the time of day and the calendar date, to choose whether or not you want the pump to sound while delivering a normal bolus or a temporary basal rate, and to access the advanced menu.
Stress hormones - Stress hormones (or "counter-regulatory" hormones) are released by the body in times of intense physical or emotional stress. These hormones cause the body to release glucose. If the glucose is not used as energy, hyperglycaemia and ketoacidosis can result.
Subcutaneous - Subcutaneous means beneath the skin. The infusion set needle is placed subcutaneously.
Suspend menu - The suspend menu for a pump allows you to temporarily suspend delivery of insulin and to resume delivery.
Temporary basal rate - The temporary basal rate is a programming option in the basal menu of an insulin pump. It permits you to change the amount of basal rate insulin delivery for a selected period of time either by increasing or deceasing the daily dose.
Total delivery - Total delivery is found in the pump's history menu and is the total amount of insulin delivered in a 24 hour period (basal plus bolus insulin).
Unsaturated fats - Unsaturated fats, which include monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, are liquid at room temperature and come from plant oils such as olive, peanut, corn, cottonseed, sunflower, safflower, and soybean. These fats tend to lower the level of cholesterol in the blood. See also: carbohydrate; protein.